Tuesday, November 22, 2011

Types of Fingerprints

First, patent prints, also called direct prints, are visible prints that occur when a foreign substance on the skin of a finger comes in contact with the smooth surface of another object. These prints leave a distinct ridge impression that is visible with the naked eye without technological enhancement of any kind. The tried and true "blood on his hands" evidence is an example of patent prints recovered from a crime scene or scene of interest to investigators. These foreign substances contain dust particles which adhere to the ridges of the fingers and are easily identifiable when left on an object.
 Patent Fingerprint
Next, plastic prints are visible, impressed prints that occur when a finger touches a soft, malleable surface resulting in an indentation. Some surfaces that may contain this type of fingerprint are those that are freshly painted or coated, or those that contain wax, gum, blood or any other substance that will soften when hand held and then retain the finger ridge impressions. These prints require no enhancement in order to be viewed, because they are impressed onto an object and are easily observable.
 Comparing a plastic fingerprint (in clay) to another fingerprint.
Continuing, latent prints are fingerprint impressions secreted in a surface or an object and are usually invisible to the naked eye. These prints are the result of perspiration which is derived from sweat pores found in the ridges of fingers. When fingers touch other body parts, moisture, oil and grease adhere to the ridges so that when the fingers touch an object, such as a lamp, a film of these substances may be transferred to that object. The impression left on the object leaves a distinct outline of the ridges of that finger. These fingerprints must be enhanced upon collection and, because they serve as a means of identifying the source of the print, they have proven to be extremely valuable over the years in the identification of its source.
Prints found on a bottle with the help of a dark powder
Lastly, exemplar prints, or known prints, is the name given to fingerprints deliberately collected from a subject, whether for purposes of enrollment in a system or when under arrest for a suspected criminal offense. During criminal arrests, a set of exemplar prints will normally include one print taken from each finger that has been rolled from one edge of the nail to the other, plain (or slap) impressions of each of the four fingers of each hand, and plain impressions of each thumb. Exemplar prints can be collected using Live Scan or by using ink on paper cards.
 A sample of a fingerprint identification card by the FBI

1 comment:

  1. Thanks for the blogs.............
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